The prisoners informed them that the regions south, through which theyhad come, belonged to the district towards Babylon and Media; the roadeast led to Susa and Ecbatana, where the king is said to spend summerand spring; crossing the river, the road west led to Lydia and Ionia;and the part through the mountains facing towards the Great Bear, led,they said, to the Carduchians[1]. But we will beeven with them; if they leave provisions for themselves anywhere,there also shall they see us marching;" and, turning to Cheirisophus,he added: "But it strikes me, we should sally forth against theseincendiaries and protect our country." The city, modern Izmit, was the capital of ancient Bithynia and one of the foremost towns of early Christianity. Some of the enemy, here a man and there another, perceived, andrunning back to the river, let fly their arrows and wounded a few; butthe majority, even when the Hellenes were well across, were still tobe seen pursuing their flight. arXivLabs is a framework that allows collaborators to develop and share new arXiv features directly on our website. The species of genus Anabasis are annual or perennial herbs or subshrubs.Their stems are fleshy and articulated, mostly glabrous with the exception of hairy tufts at the nodes, rarely with papillae-like trichomes or woolly. Todefend ourselves--to ward off that fate--not a hand stirs: no one ispreparing, none cares; but here we lie, as though it were time to restand take our ease. Let those who are infavour of these proposals confirm them with all speed, that they maybe realised in fact; or if any other course seem better, let not anyone, even though he be a private soldier, shrink from proposing it.Our common safety is our common need.". For the momentthen they bivouacked right happily; they had their provisions, theyhad also many memories of the labours that were now passed; seeingthat the last seven days spent in traversing the country of theCarduchians had been one long continuous battle, which had cost themmore suffering than the whole of their troubles at the hands of theking and Tissaphernes put together. It was a narrow mountainspur[9] overhanging the descent into the plain. 13. Everything, moreover, which is not necessary to make his or, possibly, do we seem to you 17to lack the physical surroundings suitable for attacking you? Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.5M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Accordingly, whenever the van wasobstructed, Xenophon, from behind, made a dash up the hills and brokethe barricade, and freed the vanguard by endeavouring to get above theobstructing enemy. and all yonder great mountainchains left for you to cross, which we can at any time occupy inadvance and render impassable? Let us take thepick of these, supplying their places by ordinary baggage animals, andequipping the horses for cavalry. So they stripped naked,expecting to have to swim for it, and with their long knives in theirhands began crossing, but going forward crossed without being wet upto the fork. The full meaning, however, isto be discovered from what happened after the dream. x. But Clearchus wanted the entire army to giveits mind to no one else, and that refractory people should be put outof the way. In his sleep he thought that he was bound in fetters, butthese, of their own accord, fell from off him, so that he was loosed,and could stretch his legs as freely as he wished[2]. It was now afternoon; and all of asudden the enemy came in sight on the plain, and succeeded in cuttingdown some of the Hellenes belonging to parties who were scattered overthe flat land in quest of spoil. In my opinion,sirs, we ought not to admit this fellow to the same rank withourselves; rather ought we to deprive him of his captaincy, and loadhim with packs and treat him as such. As to Menon the Thessalian[3], the mainspring of his action wasobvious; what he sought after insatiably was wealth. Arrian, Anabasis A.G. Roos, Ed. have we not horsemen enough, or infantry, orwhatever other arm you like, whereby we may be able to injure you,without risk of suffering in return? It had beenthe dream of his boyhood to become a man capable of greatachievements. Get to the Text Find the text: Open Content Alliance Find the full book: Open Content Alliance mods2: Get to the Text Find the text: Open Content Alliance Find the full book: Open Content Alliance. the Persian leaders were seen flogging their men to the attack. He exclaimed: "The best thing we can do, Cheirisophus,is to make a dash at the height itself, and with what speed we may. If then we are minded to enter a second time into termsof friendship with them, with the experience of what our generals, whoin all confidence entrusted themselves to their power, have suffered,reason would we should feel deep despondency. Rule he soughtafter only as a stepping-stone to larger spoils. When discharging the arrow, theydraw the string by getting a purchase with the left foot planted 28forward on the lower end of the bow. Impassable rivers lay athwart theirhomeward route, and hemmed them in. The men by themselves could have taken the same route as therest, but the baggage animals could not mount by any other way thanthis. Arrian, iv. Örs’ positivist view of the text could have influenced Okay in his relative objectivity in summarising Anabasis. This is the testimony of all who knewhim intimately. He seldom introduces When hisfellow-generals were put to death on the plea that they had marchedwith Cyrus against the king, he alone, although he had shared theirconduct, was exempted from their fate. See "Hist. Surely it belongs to people altogether without resources,who are helplessly struggling in the toils of fate, and are villainsto boot, to seek accomplishment of their desires by perjury to heavenand faithlessness to their fellows. With these words he ceased; and after him, Cheirisophus said:"Xenophon, hitherto I knew only so much of you as that you were, Iheard, an Athenian, but now I must commend you for your words and foryour conduct. For the Rhodians could reach further than the Persian 16slingers, or, indeed, than most of the bowmen. Now is the season to be brave ourselves, and to stimulatethe rest by our example.". The first of these, Clearchus, was a thorough soldier,and a true lover of fighting. Cheirisophus, on hearing it, offered libations also, andwhen they had performed them, they sent a general order to the troopsto pack up ready for starting, while they themselves called a meetingof the generals and took counsel how they might best effect a passage,so as to overpower the enemy in front without suffering any loss fromthe men behind. Did any one ever die in battlefrom the bite or kick of a horse? Show yourselves to be the bravestof officers, and among generals, the worthiest to command. But Zeus sentamazement on the inhabitants thereof, and so it was taken. humi jacentium adulationes, etiam victis Macedonibus graves, nedum For Ihave known people ere now, the victims in some cases of calumny, orpossibly of mere suspicion, who in apprehension of one another andeager to deal the first blow, have committed irreparable wrong againstthose who neither intended nor so much as harboured a thought ofmischief against them. historical critic. Asia. … The arrows pierced through shieldand cuirass, and the Hellenes, when they got hold of them, used themas javelins, fitting them to their thongs. In other words, the author, in delineating the portrait of his ideal prince, drew from the recollection of many princely qualities observed by him in the characters of many friends. thatwe were not to fire the king's country, they are now themselvesdoing--setting fire to it as if it were not their own. 3; xii. [2] It is impossible to give the true sense and humour of the passage in English, depending, as it does, on the double meaning of {diabainein} (1) to cross (a river), (2) to stride or straddle (of the legs). And you, who know all this, howcan you say that it is mere nonsense to talk of self-defence? Butthe enemy in position on the crest no sooner perceived their advanceupon the summit of the pass than they themselves set off full tilt ina rival race for the summit too. (1884) by Arrian , translated by Edward James Chinnock The Anabasis of Alexander If we are to fall into the hands of the king, what is left usbut to face the most horrible of sights, and to suffer the most 13fearful pains, and then to die, insulted, an ignominious death? The Medes once dwelt in it. Then it was resolved to summon the officers of the light infantry andsome of those of the heavy infantry, and to acquaint them with thestate of affairs, and ask them whether any of them were minded todistinguish themselves, and would step forward as volunteers on anexpedition. The Anabasis (which survives complete in seven books) is a history of the campaigns of Alexander the Great, specifically his conquest of the Persian Empire between 336 and 323 BC. It can be easilyunderstood, then, that of those who were brought in contact with him,the good and noble indeed were his well-wishers; but he laid himselfopen to the machinations of the base, who looked upon him as a personto be dealt with as they liked. An orderhad been passed down the lines, what light infantry and what heavyinfantry were to take part in the pursuit; and the cavalry wereinstructed to follow up the pursuit with confidence, as a considerable 3support was in their rear. of Lusi (or Lusia), a town (or district) in Northern Arcadia. 19; v. 12; ix. Here were they at theking's gates, and on every side environing them were many hostilecities and tribes of men. At the time of his death he was onlythirty years of age. Public Domain, Google-digitized. Lucian, Alex., 2), that Arrian Then, as matters were safe with him, Cheirisophus sent back thepeltasts and slingers and archers to join Xenophon, with orders tocarry out his instructions. "I know," he added, "there 27will be no lack of youngsters to follow where I lead." ANABASIS. 11 supra. The last of the three, the Chaldaeans, weresaid to be a free and brave set of people. But with the dawn the generals and officers of the Hellenes met andresolved to proceed, taking only the necessary number of stout baggageanimals, and leaving the weaklings behind. This old friend had sent to fetch him from home,promising, if he would come, to introduce him to Cyrus, "whom," saidProxenus, "I consider to be worth my fatherland and more to me. Proxenus eagerly pressed him tostop--a request which Cyrus with like ardour supported, adding that assoon as the campaign was over he would send him home. 37). 32The Hellenes, as they looked from the camp, viewed that strangehorsemanship with surprise, and could not explain to themselves whatit all meant, until Nicarchus the Arcadian came tearing along for barelife with a wound in the belly, and clutching his protruding entrailsin his hands. The Anabasis of Alexander; or, The history of the wars and conquests of Alexander the Great. There were also plenty of bowstrings found in thevillages--and lead, which they turned to account for their slings. Literally translated, with a commentary, from the Greek of Arrian, the Nicomedian ... FULL TEXT download. And now it is high time I brought my remarks to anend, for may be the enemy will be here anon. This applies to the Pisidians also; and Iam told there are many other such tribes besides. It was clear that there was something or otherhappening, but there was no time to go to the front and discover thecause of the hurry. Without a single mounted trooper to aid them in pursuit:was it not perfectly plain that if they won a battle, their enemieswould escape to a man, but if they were beaten themselves, not onesoul of them would survive? It is an "aside" to the reader, which in a modern book would appear as a footnote. arXiv is committed to these values and only works with partners that adhere to them. The banks before named on which they weredrawn up were a hundred yards or more distant from the river, and thesingle road which was visible was one leading upwards and looking likea regular artificially constructed highway. Accordingly Xenophon at once poured out a libation himself, and badethe two young fellows fill the cup and pray to the gods, who showed tohim this vision and to them a passage, to bring all other blessingsfor them to accomplishment. It was about four furlongs'march to the crossing, and as they moved along the bank, the squadronsof cavalry kept pace with them on the opposite side. 3. At any rate they have deserted us, and sought refuge withthem. There is onepoint, I admit, in which their cavalry have the whip-hand of us; it issafer for them than it is for us to run away. Theirchief fear was that the high pass over the mountains must be occupiedin advance: and a general order was issued, that after supper everyone should get his kit together for starting, and repose, in readinessto follow as soon as the word of command was given. ", Throughout this speech he seemed to Clearchus to be speaking thetruth, and he rejoined: "Then are not those worthy of the worst 24penalties who, in spite of all that exists to cement our friendship,endeavour by slander to make us enemies?" But Xenophon cut him short. I shall want also the straps which you use for the baggageanimals. Their name, pronounced Kardu by the ancient Syrians and Assyrians, Kordu by the Armenians (plural Kordukh), first appears in its narrower sense in western literature in the pages of the eye-witness Xenophon as {Kardoukhoi}. You know, I need hardlyremind you, it is not numbers or strength that gives victory in war;but, heaven helping them, to one or other of two combatants it is 42given to dash with stouter hearts to meet the foe, and such onset, innine cases out of ten, those others refuse to meet. "Nor let any one suppose that herein is a point of weakness, in thatCyrus's troops, who before were drawn up by your side, have nowdeserted us, for they are even worse cowards still than those weworsted. Two or three heavy infantry soldiers stepped forward atonce--two Arcadians, Aristonymus of Methydrium, and Agasias ofStymphalus--and in emulation of these, a third, also an Arcadian,Callimachus from Parrhasia, who said he was ready to go, and would getvolunteers from the whole army to join him. ", At this point Cleanor the Ochomenian stood up and spoke as follows:"You see, men, the perjury and the impiety of the king. Thisproposal satisfied the generals, and a treaty was made on the termssuggested. Himthen they banished. Its notes added wings to the flight of thebarbarians, but the Hellenes turned right about in the oppositedirection, and betook themselves to the river with what speed theymight. 434 B; Aelian (Varia Historia, iii. Then I shall carry them across, and when Ihave fastened the links at both ends, I shall place layers of wood onthem and a coating of earth on the top of that. Thelieutenant-governor of it was Tiribazus, the king's friend, andwhenever the latter paid a visit, he alone had the privilege ofmounting the king upon his horse. At times ithappened that, the relief party having mounted, encounteredconsiderable annoyance in their descent from the barbarians, who wereso agile that they allowed them to come up quite close, before theyturned back, and still escaped, partly no doubt because the onlyweapons they had to carry were bows and slings. But as I fail to discover, after investigation, that youare endeavouring to do us a mischief--and I am quite sure that nothingof the sort has ever entered our heads with regard to you--the bestplan seemed to me to come and talk the matter over with you, so that,if possible, we might dispel the mutual distrust on either side. The village eventually reached was large, and possessed apalace belonging to the satrap, and most of the houses were crownedwith turrets; provisions were plentiful. Andthen to turn and ponder the condition of our soldiers, without part orlot in these good things, except we bought it; few, I knew, had anylonger the wherewithal to buy, and yet our oath held us down, so thatwe could not provide ourselves otherwise than by purchase. When he had poured out the libation, he atonce led the two young men to Cheirisophus, and they repeated to himtheir story. To sustain a running fightwith an enemy constantly attacking was one thing; to keep him at arm'slength from a fixed base of action another: and the difference wasmuch in their favour. He claims them as his, sincethey belonged to Cyrus, who was his slave." recognised the overlordship of the Armenian king. Nor did this villagestand alone; there were others not a few in this plain of the Tigrisequally overflowing with plenty. though you have eyes to see, you do not perceive;though you have ears to hear, you do not recollect. p. 123, note (1st ed.). Not long afterthat, at one and the same signal, those within were seized and thosewithout cut down; after which some of the barbarian horsemen gallopedover the plain, killing every Hellene they encountered, bond or free. The advance into thecountry of the Carduchians was conducted with a view partly tosecrecy, and partly to speed, so as to effect their entrybefore the enemy could occupy the passes.]. [3] See Herod. It is clear that wemust march where we can get provisions. Here there was a return of the old despondency. [6] I.e., in practising, in order to get the maximum range they let fly the arrows, not horizontally, but up into the air. With thisunderstanding, off they set, two thousand strong; and there was aheavy downpour of rain, but Xenophon, with his rearguard, beganadvancing to the visible pass, so that the enemy might fix hisattention on this road, and the party creeping round might, as much aspossible, elude observation. 17-19. Xenophon and Cheirisophus arranged to recover thedead, and in return restored the guide; afterwards they did everythingfor the dead, according to the means at their disposal, with thecustomary honours paid to good men. In consequence he wascondemned to death by the Spartan authorities for disobedience toorders; and now, finding himself an exile, he came to Cyrus. Nor can I see whatbetter force you will find to help you in chastising them than thiswhich marches at my back to-day. 23; ix. The circuit of Nineveh is said to have been about fifty-six miles. p. 137. Cheirisophus retorted: "That isnot quite my view; I say, let us do a little burning ourselves, andthey will cease all the quicker. The Karduchians or Kurds belong by speech to the Iranian stock, forming in fact their farthest outpost to the west, little given to agriculture, but chiefly to the breeding of cattle. and all those rivers, on whose banks wecan deal craftily by you, checking and controlling and choosing theright number of you whom we care to fight! So, when Mithridates had come up with them,and they were well within arrow and sling shot, the bugle sounded thesignal to the Hellenes; and immediately the detachment under ordersrushed to close quarters, and the cavalry charged. Xenophon remarking, "I am the younger," elected to go; but hestipulated for a detachment from the front to accompany him, since itwas a long way to fetch up troops from the rear. Thegods, who full surely will be on our side, seeing it is our enemieswho have taken their names falsely; whilst we, with much to lure us,yet for our oath's sake, and the gods who were our witnesses, sternlyheld aloof. In their course theyencountered a crest above the road, occupied by the enemy, whom theymust either dislodge or be themselves cut off from the rest of theHellenes. [1] Can this be the same man whose escape is so graphically described above? That is why I hastenedon, and why I could not wait for you, hoping to be beforehand withthem yonder in seizing the pass: the guides we have got say there isno other way." On the 10other hand, the Asiatic cavalry, even while fleeing, poured volleys ofarrows behind their backs, and wounded the pursuers; while theHellenes must fall back fighting every step of the way they hadmeasured in the pursuit; so that by the end of that day they had notgone much more than three miles; but in the late afternoon theyreached the villages. Xenophon, with the rearguard, followed the path which theparty with the guide had taken, since it was easiest for the beasts ofburthen; one half of his men he had posted in rear of the baggageanimals; the other half he had with himself. To-day you have made 16trial of them, and knowing that, however many times your number, theydo not care to await your onset, what concern have you now to beafraid of them? Here, again, while the rest of thesoldiers were busy about provisions, the generals and officers met incouncil, and after collecting the prisoners together, submitted themto a cross-examination touching the whole country round, the names,and so forth, of each district. Ourenemy, we may be sure, did not open war upon us till he felt he hadeverything amply ready; yet none of us shows a corresponding anxietyto enter the lists of battle in the bravest style. 47. --Grote, "Hist. Now, sirs, is it not clear thatall these good things belong to whoever has strength to hold them? As soon as he turns, and the bugle fromthe river sounds for 'the attack,' you will face about to the right,the rear rank leading, and the whole detachment falling back andcrossing the river as quickly as possible, every one preserving hisoriginal rank, so as to avoid tramelling one another: the bravest manis he who gets to the other side first.". To put itbriefly, war was his mistress; just as another man will spend hisfortune on a favourite, or to gratify some pleasure, so he chose tosquander his substance on soldiering. And, next, we shouldthrow our tents into the bonfire also: for these again are only atrouble to carry, and do not contribute one grain of good either forfighting or getting provisions. Here the Hellenes recruited themselves, and the sight ofthe plain filled them with joy, for the river was but six or sevenfurlongs distant from the mountains of the Carduchians. Thosewho are in favour of Xenophon's proposals, hold up their hands." AccordinglyCheirisophus furnished him with the light infantry from the front,reoccupying their place by those from the centre. In other words, though it wasnot his good fortune ever to have followers inspired solely byfriendship or goodwill, yet those who found themselves under him,either by State appointment or through want, or other arch necessity,yielded him implicit obedience. And Xenophon replied: "But I have got two prisonersalso; the enemy annoyed us so much that we laid an ambuscade for them,which also gave us time to recover our breaths; we killed some ofthem, and did our best to catch one or two alive--for this veryreason--that we might have guides who knew the country, to dependupon.". So then Xenophon, with the youngest men, scaled up to the top, leavingorders to the rest to march on slowly, so as to allow the hindmostcompanies to unite with them; they were to advance by the road, andwhen they reached the level to ground arms[3]. Advanced full-text search ... Anabasis. It is obvious to Xenophon that the dream is sent from Heaven. There was amist, so that they could get quite close without being observed. I too! "Why, when we had it in our power to destroy you, did we not proceedto do it? There are horses in the army I know; some few withmyself, others belonging to Clearchus's stud, and a good many otherscaptured from the enemy, used for carrying baggage. Search HathiTrust. thequestion arises, Was he equally good as a commander? However, when they had issued from the plain and ascended thefirst crest, and were in the act of descending it so as to mount thenext, at this juncture the barbarians came upon them. - p.xi), who died in 323 BC (ref. His parents must have been well to do, because they were Roman citizens. Full text Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Xenophon went and put the question toApollo, to which of the gods he must pray and do sacrifice, so that hemight best accomplish his intended journey and return in safety, withgood fortune. Thereupon Hieronymous the Eleian, the eldest of Proxenus's captains,commenced speaking as follows: "Generals and captains, it seemed rightto us, in view of the present crisis, ourselves to assemble and tosummon you, that we might advise upon some practicable course. Cheirisophus and his men were returning from their sally of defencewhen Xenophon and his party descended, and the latter rode along the 4ranks as the rescuing party came up, and greeted them thus: "Do younot see, men of Hellas, they admit that the country is now ours; whatthey stipulated against our doing when they made the treaty, viz. Indeed, heshowed a more delicate regard for his soldiers than his subordinatesfor him, and he was indisputably more apprehensive of incurring theirhatred than they were of losing their fidelity. 94, "ever feeding on the Lotus and forgetful of returning.". Variousways in which you Hellenes may be useful to me you yourself havementioned, but there is one still greater. Lucius Flavius Arrianus - or Arrian, as he is usually called in the English language - was born in Nicomedia, one of the Greek towns in the Roman empire, between 85 and 90 CE. The Anabasis of Xenophon : with an interlinear translation, for the use of schools and private learners on the Hamiltonian system / as improved by Thomas ... Search full-text index. Century B.C., and to theseterms Xenophon agreed Leontini, 485-380 B.C the invasion of Greeze by Datis Artaphernes. Though they were, moreover, which you use for the special evils the! Look another matter in the text the Boeotian, was already there, had! Thenight advances ; with the day, for may be useful to me like an author 's pamphlet `` Revenues... 18: Gloriae laudisque, ut justo major cupido, ita ut juveni in. Freely Search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and.. Literary, historical and cultural aspects of the men behind to pass him,. 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