List of Neanderthal Fossil Sites

Neanderthal fossil sites

This List of Neanderthal fossil sites will help you navigate more easily among the many discovered settlements of ancient humans. It contains a list of findings with links to their brief descriptions. The list focuses only on sites where researchers have discovered the remains of Neanderthals themselves, not just their tools.

Interest in the history of Neanderthal man has been growing in recent years, fueled by new discoveries as well as remarkable findings made by scientists through DNA research.

Wikipedia also has good examples of cataloging Neanderthal finds. For example, List of Neanderthal sites and List of Neanderthal fossils provide useful information but only include the most well-known locations and do not encompass a number of significant discoveries made in recent years.

Here, for your attention, are approximately 246 sites from 31 countries ranging from Europe to Central Asia and the Altai region. All sites are sorted by the countries where the findings were made. Next to the site name, the approximate age of the findings is indicated. If there are several dates separated by commas, it means that a series of findings were made in different layers and of different ages. To view Neanderthal fossil sites according to their age, follow the links below:

Neanderthal fossil sites and remains:

From the most ancient to 130 thousand years;

Between 130 thousand years to 75 thousand years;

From 75 thousand years to 56 thousand years;

Less than 56 thousand years old.

EUROPE

Belgium, Spy Cave

Belgium, Spy Cave.

Belgium

Engis44
Fonds-de-Foret (Bay Bonnet)50–44
Goyet46–44
Naulette124–119
Rotches de D’Gennly80–60
Scladina (Sclayn)127–120
Spy44–42
Trou Al’Wesse (Modave)50–41
Trou de l’Abime (Couvin)47–44.5
Trou Magrite (Magritte)41
Walou44–42
Bulgaria, Bacho Kiro Cave.

Bulgaria, Bacho Kiro Cave.

Bulgaria

Bacho Kiro70–50
Kozarnika183–128
Croatia, Vindija Cave.

Croatia, Vindija Cave.

Croatia

Krapina130–110
Vindija48–45
Neanderthal fossil sites: Czech, Kulna Cave.

Czech Republic, Kulna Cave.

Czech Republic

Kulna50
Ochoz (Svedul Stul)80–45
Šipka55
France, La Ferrassie rock shelter.

France, La Ferrassie rock shelter. ©Musee National de Prehistoire, Les Eyzies

France

Abri Moula49
Abri Suard163
Angles-sur-l’Anglin (Roc-aux-Sorciers)50–40
Artenac124–119
Aubesier191–169
Balauzière57–40
Biache-Saint-Vaast196–159
Boccard75
Bourgeois-Delaunay151–126
Castaigne (Caminero)45–42
Chapelle-aux-Saints60
Châteauneuf120–70
Combe Grenal130, 75–65
Cottés46–44
Crouzade50–45
Eguisheim (Egisheim)60
Ferrassie52–45
Font-de-Gaume50–40
Fontechevade200
Genay82
Grotte de l’Hyène125–75
Grotte des Fees40
Grotte du Bison51–44, 48–42
Grotte du Loup (Cosnac)40
Grotte du Renne44–41
Hortus57
Jaurens40
Jonzac (Chez-Pinaud)65–48
Lazaret160–150
Macassargues (Verrerie)70
Malarnaud129–122
Mandrin69–46, 52–49
Marillac (Les Pradelles)60–58
Masque110–80
Mas-Viel65–50
Merveilles (Castel-Merle)105–100
Montgaudier120–80
Montmaurin (La Niche and Coupe-Gorge)200, 200–150, 125
Moula-Guercy120–100
Moulin du Milieu110–80
Moustier53–43
Neron47–45
Noisetier50
Orgnac 3 (Mattecarlinque)340–298
Payre230–200
Pech-de-l’Azé51–44
Pêcheurs80–70
Pelenos (Monsempron)65
Petit-Puymoyen70–60
Peyrards80
Placard70–50
Portel-Ouest70–65
Pradayrol335–250
Quina57–44
Ramandils82–80
Regourdou70
Rescoundudou96–82
Rigabe80–60
Rivaux70
Roc de Marsal70
Rochelot85–80
Rochers-de-Villeneuve51–44
Saint-Cesaire43–42
Simard70–60
Sirogne (Rocamadour)140–125
Soulabé-las-Maretas120–100
Tour of La Chaise57
Tourville236–183
Vaufrey74
Vergisson75–65, 42–40
Vergranne300
Neanderthal fossil sites: Georgia, Ortvala Klde rock shelter.

Neanderthal fossil sites: Georgia, Ortvala Klde rock shelter.

Georgia

Bronzovaya (Bronze)50
Djruchula (Djroutchoula)105–90
Ortvala Cave44.5–42.5
Ortvale Klde50–40
Sakajia (Sakažhia)60–50
Germany, Hohlenstein-Stadel Cave.

Germany, Hohlenstein-Stadel Cave.

Germany

Altmuhl (Klausennische, Untere Klause, Sesselfelsgrotte)100–70, 90–60, 60–46
Bad Cannstatt295
Balver (Balve)110–85
Ehringsdorf230–205
Feldhofer45–42
Hohlenstein-Stadel124–120
Hunas79–76
Ochtendung (Wannen)170–160
Reilingen250
Salzgitter-Lebenstedt58–54
Sarstedt115
Taubach234–230
Warendorf70–40
Neanderthal fossil sites: Gibraltar. Gorham’s Cave

Gibraltar. Gorham’s Cave is a large sea cave, the largest in the complex. ©Finlayson, Gibraltar Museum

Gibraltar

Devil’s Tower50–42
Forbes’ Quarry70–60
Genista50–40
Vanguard50
Greece, Apidima Cave.

Greece, Apidima Cave.

Greece

Apidima170
Kalamakia100–39
Lakonis80–75
Petralona200, possibly 350
Hungary, Remete Felső

Hungary, Remete Felső. Interior view of the Upper Cave in the Reme Valley. ©Szenti Tamas

Hungary

Remete Felső70–50
Subalyuk (Suba-lyuk)110–80
Vertesszölles300
Italy, Balzi Rossi caves

Italy, Balzi Rossi caves. ©Thilo Parg

Italy

Altamura (Lamalunga)172–128
Archi75–55
Balzi Rossi (Grotte du Prince, Grimaldi)250–200
Bisceglie75–65
Breuil45–40
Broion50–46
Buca del Tasso57–40
Calascio80
Capelvenere50–40
Casal de’Pazzi295–245
Castel di Guido330–320
Cavallo50–47
Ciota Ciara300
Contrada Ianni (Nicotera)100–60
Fate82–75
Fondo Cattìe (Maglie)100–40
Fontana Ranuccio450–430
Fossellone74
Fumane60–50
Guattari100–90, 68–50
Leuca100–70
Madonna dell’Arma88–73
Manie70–60
Melpignano (Nuzzo)57–40
Mezzena45–40
Molare140
Monte delle Gioie295–290
Nadale70
Poggio240–190
Ponte Mammolo295–245
Quinzano128–115
Roccia San Sebastiano45–44
Saccopastore250
San Bernardino60–40
Sedia del Diavolo295–285
Taddeo100–80
Tagliente57–40
Visogliano458
Montenegro, Crvena Stijena rock shelter.

Montenegro, Crvena Stijena rock shelter.

Montenegro

Crvena Stijena78–48
Netherlands, Doggerland

Netherlands, Doggerland. ©Winterwatch.net

Netherlands

Krijn70–50 
Jaskinia Ciemna (Dark Cave), Poland

Jaskinia Ciemna (Dark Cave), Ojcowski National Park, Poland. ©Jan Jerszynski / Wikimedia Commons

Poland

Jaskinia Ciemna115
Stajnia54–52, possibly >100
Neanderthal fossil sites: Portugal, Gruta Nova da Columbeira.

Neanderthal fossil sites: Portugal, Gruta Nova da Columbeira.

Portugal

Columbeira41.5
Figueira Brava106–86
Galeria Pesada (Gruta da Aroeira)418–390, 300–278
Oliveira70–60, 47–46
Salemas50–40
Romania, Ohaba Ponor

Romania, Ohaba Ponor (Şura Mare Cave).

Romania

Ohaba Ponor (Bordul Mare)120–100
Russia, Matuzka

Russia, Matuzka. ©EU

Russia (European part)

Barakaevskaya (Barakai)70–57
Matuzka105–90
Mezmaiskaya70–60, 45–42
Monasheskaya48
Rozhok130–115
Serbia Velika Balanica

Serbia Velika Balanica. ©Rade Vesović

Serbia

Pešturina102, 92–44
Velika Balanica295–285
Slovakia, Ganovce

Slovakia, Ganovce. The travertine rock where the skull was found. ©Klingon

Slovakia

Dzerava skala Cave (Palfy)57–50
Ganovce105
Šala120–80
Spain, Foradada

Spain, Foradada. ©Antonio-Rodríguez-Hidalgo

Spain

Abric Romani60
Arrillor46–43
Atapuerca530–430
Axlor100–50, 47–42
Banyoles (Bañolas)66–45
Bolomor130
Carihuela (Cariguela), Pinar146–117
Casares45–42
Castillo77, 70, 44–43
Cova Negra273–261
Covalejos45–40
Cueva del Angel121–104
Esquilleu54–44
Foradada100
Gegant55–52
Horá100–40
Jarama60–50
Lezetxiki310–280, 164
Mollet215
Moros (Gabasa)150
Pinilla del Valle63–50, 42–38
Prado Vargas55–43
Salt47–45
Sidrón58–45
Sima de las Palomas130–90
Simanya49–42
Teixoneres52
Tossal de la Font90–70
Valdegoba95–73
Zafarraya46
Switzerland, Cotencher Cave

Switzerland, Cotencher Cave.

Switzerland

Cotencher73–68
Saint-Brais II40
Ukraine, Kiik-Koba

Ukraine, Kiik-Koba.

Ukraine

Kiik-Koba80–70
Zaskalnaya43–41
United Kingdom, Bontnewydd Cave

United Kingdom, Bontnewydd Cave. ©Llywelyn2000

United Kingdom

Pontnewydd250–200
St. Brelade48
Swanscombe400–300

ASIA

Iran, Qal-e Kord Cave

Iran, Qal-e Kord Cave.

Iran

Bawa Yawan44–42
Behistun (Behistoun)190–60
Qal-e Kord155
Wezmeh70–40
Iraq, Shanidar Cave

Iraq, Shanidar Cave.

Iraq

Shanidar73–40
Israel, Skull Cave (Zuttiyeh).

Israel, Skull Cave (Zuttiyeh).

Israel

Amud55
Ein Qashish70–60
Kebara (Kabara)62–60
Nesher Ramla140–120
Qafzeh (Kafzeh)115–92
Qesem380–220
Shukbah (Shovakh)70–56
Skhul119–100, 80–40
Tabun140–112
Lebanon, Ksar Akil rock shelter

Lebanon, Ksar Akil rock shelter.

Lebanon

Ksar Akil46
Masloukh120
Ras el Kelb100–70
Russia, Chagyrskaya Cave

Russia, general view of Chagyrskaya Cave. ©Roberts

Russia (Asian part)

Chagyrskaya80, 59–51
Denisova52
Okladnikov44
Syria, Dederiyeh Cave

Syria, Dederiyeh Cave.

Syria

Dederiyeh70–50
Tajikistan, Khudji open-air site

Tajikistan, Khudji open-air site.

Tajikistan

Khudji42
Turkey, Karain Cave

Turkey, Karain Cave.

Turkey

İncili
KanalMiddle Paleolithic
Karain340–250, 250–200
Merdivenli85–75
Üçağızli42–40
Uzbekistan, Aman Kutan, Lion's Cave

Uzbekistan, Aman Kutan, Lion’s Cave. ©meros.uz

Uzbekistan

Aman Kutan55
Anghilak46
Obi-Rakhmat75–70
Teshik-Tash70

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